The emergence of Indus culture has proved that Indian culture is as ancient and rich as any other culture in the world.

Indus culture

(1) The emergence of Indus culture has proved that Indian culture is as ancient and rich as any other culture in the world. The idea of ​​a rich culture flourishing here even before the Aryan culture of India came to the world on the occasion of Indus culture.

(2) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru has expressed the greatness of this culture in the following words:

Discovery and period of culture

(1) Shri. Rakhaldas goes to Banerjee.

(2) This culture was mainly spread in the valleys of Indus and its tributaries. Subsequent excavations, however, have shown that it spread over a wide area like Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.

(3) The range of this culture was about 600 miles from south to north and about 1000 miles from east to west.

(4) Remains of the Indus Valley Civilization were first discovered at Harappa (Montgomery District in the Punjab Province of Pakistan) and Mohenjodaro (Larkana District in the Sindh Province of Pakistan).

(5) Remains of Indus culture have been found at Lothal, Rangpur, Chhundado, Sutkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Alamgir, Banavali (Haryana), Sutkajendor, Naal, Kulli and Zhukar (Balochistan).

(6) The excavations at Mohenjodaro were led by John Marshall, and the excavations at Harappa were led by Madhavswarup Vats.

(7) In both Mohenjodaro and Harappa, it is seen that new settlements have been made seven times in a row from the old remains. Evidence suggests that before the Indus Valley Civilization, a rural culture resembling the Indus Valley Civilization existed in the vicinity.

(8) There are differences of opinion regarding the period of Indus culture. This culture etc. S. There is an opinion that it should be as old as 3500 years ago, But now her period, etc. S. 2500 years ago S. It has been fixed as 1700 years ago.

Town planning and housing.

(1) Town planning was characteristic of the Indus Valley Civilization. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were fortified to the west of the city. To its east were the houses of ordinary citizens.

(2) The roads in the city were east-west and south-north. They intersected at right angles to each other.

(3) There were brick houses on both sides of the road. Each house had a bathroom and gutters to carry water. The houses there were square. These houses were single-story, two-story, and rarely even three-story.

(4) Ideal town planning like in Indus culture is not found in any other ancient culture.

(5) The fort at Mohenjodaro had spacious public baths. It was 180 feet long and 108 feet wide. In the middle of it was a big lake. Apart from this, there were some other public buildings.

(6) There were also large granaries at both Mohenjodaro and Harappa. The granaries at Harappa were 169 feet long and 135 feet wide. The large brick dock at Lothal was also characteristic.

(7) Dr. Marshall has said, ‘Standing in the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro, we feel as if we are a modern Lancashire, But it seems that we are living in a ruined city.

(8) Also, linear town planning, underground sewerage system for sewage, good water supply system, public health care, big buildings, wide and straight roads, etc. can be mentioned in the features of Indus culture.

Social and economic life.

(1) The society in Indus culture should be divided into different business groups. These included farmers, traders, artisans, and clergymen engaged in various trades.

(2) The people of Indus culture used garments made of cotton, wool, and hemp. Both men and women wore ornaments made of metals like gold, silver, copper, etc., and various types of gems. These ornaments included bangles, earrings, belts, tools, claws, shawls, necklaces, and necklaces. They also used different types of beads and precious stones for ornaments.

(3) The game of traps was popular among the people of Indus culture. Children's toys have also been found in large numbers.

(4) Agriculture was a major occupation during the Indus Valley Civilization. Land, climate, availability of water, etc. were favorable for agriculture. Wheat, rice, barley, ghewda, pea, sesame, cotton, leafy vegetables, fruits, etc. were harvested from the farm.

(5) Animal husbandry was also done by the people of Indus culture. Domestic animals included dogs, cats, cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, camels, donkeys, oxen, hens, ducks, and elephants.

(6) Evidence shows that trade and small businesses are also operating on a large scale.

Art.

(1) The people of Indus culture were also pioneers in the field of art. Although no grand artifacts were found there, it has been found that the people were doing small handicrafts very neatly. The clay idols, mudras, and various kinds of toys made by him are big

These numbers have become available. The pictures of various animals they have carved on the rings are realistic.

(2) A bronze dancer statue has been found at Mohenjodaro. Besides, a masculine statue carved in stone has also been found. These sculptures are very linear and proportionate.

Religion.

(1) Excavations here have unearthed several female images of Bhajakya clay. These idols are believed to belong to the primordial mother. From this, it can be inferred that these people must be worshiping the mother deities.

(2) An idol resembling Pashupati or Shiva is also found here.

(3) There is reason to believe that tree worship and animal worship should also be prevalent there. Some researchers have suggested that some forms of worship in Hinduism are inherited from the Indus Valley Civilization.

(4) Different opinions have been put forward as to who were the creators of Indus culture and to which human race they belonged. Some scholars say that these people must have been Dravidians, But there is no consensus on that. Some believe that these people were of Proto-Austroloid and Caspian descent.

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